Infants born prematurely have a significantly higher risk of neurological disabilities when compared to infants born at term. These risks are inversely proportional to infant birth weight and gestational age at birth: the smaller and more preterm the infant, the greater the risk. Explored is the relationship between human milk feedings, central nervous system development, and outcomes in term and preterm infants. Of particular interest are the dose-response relationships associated with early human milk feedings in the NICU and intelligence, cognitive abilities and brain anatomy later in life. Several current research studies are summarized.